By Roger French
В этом исследовании автор показывает, что древнее естествознание было собранием и представлением историй и феноменов, достойных упоминания философами, популяризаторами или торговцами чудесами. В этой книге исследуются отношения между физическим миром, богами, греческой философией и целями тех, кто выражал весьма различные понятия о «природе». Основное внимание автора уделено «Истории животных» Аристотеля, «Естественной истории растений» Теофраста, «Географии» Страбона, а также, в некоторой степени, «Естественной истории» Плиния Старшего. Одна из основных тем книги - то, как к естествознанию относились различные общества: греки, римляне, евреи и христиане.Образцы сканов:
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30 This is shown no longer to be the case by Aristotle’s treating heaven and earth naturally. He extends it, second, into the very mechanisms by which the gods were thought to affect men: ‘meteorology’. Certainly there are internal philosophical reasons for doing this, for the motions to be explained are of the next higher order and the matter is now mixed rather than elementary, but ultimately Aristotle is filling a space caused and shaped by the disappearance of the gods. Even when Aristotle’s topic seems to have been outlined by his ANCIENT NATURAL HISTORY 15 ‘predecessors’ it is because they too were working to fill previously godly spaces.
Aristotle says96 that all actual bodies as elementary mixtures act on the senses in different ways, and their qualities are not singly perceived as such. But because their qualities, active and passive, remain within them, natural bodies can be investigated for both sorts; and Aristotle begins a long account of the historiae of different objects and substances. He wants to know how their passive qualities react to external active qualities. Do these objects burn or melt with heat? Do they break or submit to pressure?
50 (ii) The meteorological part of natural history By the time the teaching programme at the Lyceum reached the Meteorologica the enterprise of looking at the natures of things is clear. Aristotle was now ANCIENT NATURAL HISTORY 23 prepared to refer to some larger plan in his educational scheme. He looked back much more clearly than before to the Physics and De Caelo and locates this study of meteorology in respect to them. 53 After studying physics, the heavens and generation, says Aristotle, we are concerned with what our predecessors called meteorology.
Ancient Natural History by Roger French