By Cem Eroğul
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Extra resources for An Essay on the Nature of the State
The specificity of the 'third function' is that, contrary to the first two, its necessity does not derive directly from the object of political activity. This explains why it is scarcely noted by political scientists,5 while the first two funetions are always pointed out: seholars biased to the Right stressing the first one, and those leaning to the Left insisting on the second. Political scientists are usually blurred by the subjective side of the coin : they underline the greed, the thirst for power, authority, the penehant for a lavish style, ete.
These relations are shaped by the property rights of the members of society. Without drawing at this stage distinetions between real appropriation and legal proprietorship, the basic issue in this context is the ownership of the means of produetion. The invariant elements of any produetion are the labour-power of the producers and the means of produetion. However, the connection between these elements is most variable, and it is these variations which, according to Marx, account for the fundamental difference between forms of society throughout human history.
During the majör part of this period human evolution stili continued, and humanity reached its present shape less than 100,000 years ago. Meanwhile, the geography of our world was also submitted to important changes. The Ice Ages succeeding each other by tens of thousands of years had significrnt effects on the earth's climate, causing fundamental changes in the flora and fauna surrounding our iıumanlike ancestors. The most important means of production of the savage economy were small stone tools made by chipping flint.
An Essay on the Nature of the State by Cem Eroğul