By Ivar Lodemel, Amilcar Moreira
The decade of the 20 th century was once marked through a shift in how welfare-states care for these on the backside of the source of revenue ladder. This shift concerned the introduction/strengthening of work-obligations as a for receiving minimal source of revenue merits - which, in a few international locations, was once complemented via efforts to assist recipients go back to the labour industry, specifically during the funding in energetic labour marketplace guidelines (ALMP).
Based on case-studies of advancements within the US and 8 ecu international locations (UK, Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Germany, France, Portugal and the Czech Republic), this e-book argues that this primary set of reforms was once through a moment wave of reforms that, when deepening the trail in the direction of the point of interest on paintings, brings vital strategies- be it the instruments used to aid recipients again to the labour markets (ex., monetary incentives) and in how activation regulations are brought (ex., integration of gain and employment services).
Looking on the array of advancements brought in this interval, we figure key traits.
The first matters the strengthening of the position of the industry within the governance of activation, that is obvious within the strengthening of the point of interest on paintings, or the marketisation of employment providers. the second one, issues a movement in the direction of the individualisation of carrier supply, obvious within the growth of using own motion plans or in efforts to streamline provider supply.
Finally, we express that the onset of the sovereign debt predicament in Europe, has prompted a brand new wave of reforms. when tentative simply, our research issues to a caring pattern of the curtailment or advantages (Portugal) and activation companies (Netherlands, Czech Republic) to minimal source of revenue recipients and, in parallel, an extra deepening of the focal point on work-conditionality (UK and Norway).
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Extra resources for Activation or Workfare? Governance and the Neo-Liberal Convergence
We next scrutinize these promises in more detail. Benefit Upgrade Norway’s Ministry of Labour and Social Inclusion described the Qualification Program as an upgrade of benefits. 37). 224, 228). The Qualification allowance was to be equal to the minimum benefit level provided for the insured and would apply for most of the program’s target groups. The rules for determining the level of benefits, however, meant that a large group of program participants did not, in fact, receive the higher benefit level.
Enterprising states: The public management of welfare-towork. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Daguerre, A. (2007). Active labour market policies and welfare reform: Europe and the US in a comparative perspective. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Dean, D. (2007). The ethics of welfare-to-work. Policy and Politics, 35, 573–589. Dingeldey, I. (2007). Between workfare and enablement—The different paths to transformation of the welfare state: A comparative analysis of activating labour market policies.
Thus, Norway’s productivist goal of full employment seemed to be undone. This economic reality, the spread of Third Way ideology, and the focus by national policymakers on the threats of long-term public income dependence and corruption resulted in a shift back to the pre–World War II policies of welfare recipient activation (Johansson, 2001; Hvinden, 2008). Reflecting this shift, welfare activation policies affecting social insurance and social assistance schemes emerged within a number of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries in the 1990s.
Activation or Workfare? Governance and the Neo-Liberal Convergence by Ivar Lodemel, Amilcar Moreira