By John F. O'Hanlon
Within the decade and a part because the e-book of the second one version of A User?s consultant to hoover expertise there were many very important advances within the box, together with spinning rotor gauges, dry mechanical pumps, magnetically levitated faster pumps, and ultraclean process designs. those, besides more advantageous cleansing and meeting ideas have made contamination-free production a truth. Designed to bridge the space in either wisdom and coaching among designers and finish clients of vacuum gear, the 3rd version deals a realistic standpoint on today?s vacuum know-how. With a spotlight at the operation, figuring out, and choice of apparatus for business methods utilized in semiconductor, optics, packaging, and similar coating applied sciences, A User?s consultant to hoover know-how, 3rd variation offers a close therapy of this crucial box. whereas emphasizing the basics and bearing on major subject matters no longer safely lined in different places, the textual content avoids subject matters now not appropriate to the common consumer.
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Extra resources for A User's Guide to Vacuum Technology
O. 95 Torr-mm) for air at 22°C. In this region the flow is called molecular flow. For completeness we could say that R < 1200; however, we cannot define a Reynolds number in the region where viscosity cannot be defined. The molecular flow region is theoretically the best understood of any flow type. This discussion focuses on orifices, infinite tubes, finite tubes, and other shapes, including combinations of components in molecular flow. 4 MOLECULAR FLOW 33 e- Px = 44,560 Pa A g 104103- v) e 102- 10’ - 1 1 0 Distance(pm) 100 Fig.
13. M. C. I. Siu, J. Vac. Sci. , 10,368 (1973). GAS PROPERTIES 24 PROBLEMS 2. I t State the assumptions that form the basis of kinetic theory. 2 Consider a 1-cm-diameter pipe 10 meters long. 01 Pa to lo5 Pa. (b) Knowing that the diffusion fiont moves as d2 oc Dt, estimate the time required for air to diffuse to the end of the 1O-meterlong pipe over the pressure range given in (a). 3 The diffbsion constant for gas (1) in gas (2), 0 1 2 describes how gas a gas of one molecular weight diffuses in the background of a second gas.
The pressure dependence of the mean free path is given for several gases in Appendix B. 1. 13), summarizes all the earlier experimentally determined gas laws. However, we review several of the experimentally verified laws here, because they are especially helpful to those with no experience in gas kinetics. When using kinetic theory, we need to remember that the primary assumption of a gas at rest in thermal equilibrium with its container is not always valid in practical situations. For example, a pressure gauge close to and facing a high vacuum cryogenic pumping surface will register a lower pressure than when it is close to and facing a warm surface in the same vessel [l].
A User's Guide to Vacuum Technology by John F. O'Hanlon